Exploring the technology behind Electric Vehicle batteries

As soon as we hear the word battery, the picture that comes in our mind is that of a mobile being charged.  Without any doubt, it has become a very important part of our life. The main purpose of a battery is to provide and store electricity. Companies are in the process of developing smaller, more powerful batteries. They want to make devices that can hold an electrical charge for longer periods of time.

One of the biggest future requirements for batteries is for electric vehicle or EV about which students of Best Private Engineering College in Rajasthan are taught. The change from cars powered by gasoline to electric vehicles is partly the result of government measures. The most common kind of battery in use today is the lithium-ion battery. These devices power everything from smartphones to computers and EVs. Lithium-ion batteries are expected to remain the most widely used for EVs in the future.

The two main parts of a battery are the cathode and anode while the cathode acts as the battery’s positive side, anode acts as the negative side.A chemical solution called an electrolyte permits the flow of electrical charge between the cathode and anode. Positively charged particles of lithium, known as ions, move through the electrolyte traveling from the anode to the cathode. This movement creates a continuous flow of electrons to provide electricity.When a rechargeable lithium-ion battery is charged, the chemical reactions happen in the opposite way. This means the lithium ions travel from the cathode back to the anode.

One of the main materials used to produce lithium-ion batteries is lithium, a light metal substance. Other necessary materials include graphite, a form of carbon, as well as the metals cobalt, manganese and nickel.

What is cathode and anode made up of?

The cathode in a lithium-ion battery is generally made of cobalt, manganese and nickel. The anode is made of graphite. Both the cathode and anode can store lithium. Nickel contained in the cathode creates high energy density. This permits EVs to travel farther on a single charge. Cobalt ensures that cathodes do not easily overheat. These materials are currently widely used to produce lithium-ion batteries. But enhancing demand has led to huge prices and supply problems for manufacturers. So, many companies are studying methods to change the mix of chemicals they use.

The main difference between lithium-ion and solid state are taught in Best Private Engineering College in Rajasthan which is that the solid-state batteries do not contain a liquid electrolyte. Instead, thin layers of solid electrolytes carry lithium ions between the cathode and anode.The development of solid-state batteries for EVs is ongoing. Manufacturers, who are investing in solid-state batteries, have said that the technology provides batteries that are more energy dense. This means they can be made smaller or hold more power for longer trips. Solid-state batteries can also be charged faster and are less likely to catch fire.

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Sarosh Khan
Company: Sahasra Group Batch: B.Tech. (EC)